I've tried to keep a list of those books that were directly discussed or in the hands of readers. In chronological occurrence of their mention:
- Lawrence, DH: Lady Chatterley's Lover (S01e03)
- Jaffe, Rona: The Best of Everything (S01e06)
- Uris, Leon: Exodus (S01e06)
- Rand, Ayn: Atlas Shrugged (S01e08, but with several mentions)
- O'Hara, Frank: Meditations in an Emergency (S02e01)
- Fitzgerald, F Scott: Babylon Revisited and Other Stories (S02e04)
- Forester, CS: Horatio Hornblower (S02e08)
- Porter, Katherine Anne: Ship of Fools (S02e09)
- Faulkner, William: The Sound and the Fury (S02e11)
- Gibbon, Edward: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (S03e03)
- Ogilvy, David: Confessions of an Advertising Man (S03e06)
- Twain, Mark: Tom Sawyer (S03e06)
- Hilton, Conrad: Be My Guest, Autobiography of Conrad Hilton (S03e07)
- McCarthy, Mary: The Group (S03e10)
- Benedict, Ruth: The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture (S04e05)
- Keene, Carolyn: The Clue of the Black Keys (S04e09)
- Berne, Eric: Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships (S04e10)
- Le Carré, John: The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (S04e13)
Of course, there have been countless literary allusions throughout the series. TS Eliot's The Hollow Men was recited. A reference to The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit (Sloan Wilson) is as much a cultural touchstone as it has to do with any novel. Moby Dick. I can't help but think of The Bell Jar when you mention the summer the Rosenbergs were executed, but very likely that's the sort of reference that wasn't necessarily intended.
I've read only a few of those listed, some of them many years ago, but on watching some episodes, I have been inspired to directly seek out some titles, particularly since they are not merely props but have direct bearing on the plot or characters at issue. I know I'm not the only one to be reading up. Frank O'Hara's rediscovery has been widely noted.
Similarly, according to NPR, "Interest in Rand and her philosophy is on the upswing. Since the 2008 presidential election, according to Brook, the novel Atlas Shrugged has sold more than 1 million copies, far more than in any similar period in the book's 54-year history." While this is linked to the rising popularity of the Tea Party, no doubt sales for this particular novel were boosted by its exposure on Mad Men.
But I think my favourite book sighting, late in season 4, is the Nancy Drew mystery in Sally Draper's hands. We've seen the books in the house she grew up in; it should come as no surprise that Sally too should find escape in a good book. Reminds me a little of my own young self, visiting my dad's office and being told to sit quietly — I'd read. Though I can't recall it specifically, I'm sure I read The Clue of the Black Keys — I read them all. I'll be sure to dig this one out of the box in my mom's basement as soon as the opportunity presents itself.
Have you been reading along with the Mad Men?